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Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean

Say Atlantiko et komaduan sankabalgan ya dayat, ya manga sakey a kakapat na kabaleg na dalin. Say ngaran na dayat, a nanlapud Griegon mitolohiya, et mankabaliksan na "Dagat na Atlas". Say sankadaanan ya abitlan impangisalaysay ed sayan ngaran et walad The Histories nen Herodotus nen manga 450 B.C. (I 202).

Sayan dayat et walaan na andukey, S-shaped a bassin ya ontutuloy ed bandad amianen-abagatan tan naapag ed North Atlantic tan South Atlantic panamegley na Equatorial Counter Currents diad manga 8° North latitude. Say Atlantiko et mikonektaan ed Pasipiko panamegley na Dayat Arktiko diad amianen tan say Drake Passage diad abalaten. Say Panama Canal so ginawa na too a koneksion na Atlantiko tan Pasipiko. Diad bukig, say linean a mangibiig ed Atlantiko tan dayat Indyano et say 20° East meridian, a manlalapud abalaten manlapud Cape Agulhas anggad Antarctica. Say Atlantiko so nisian ed Artiko na sakey a linya manlapud Greenland ya anggad amianen a sagur na Islandia insan manlapud amianen-bukig na Islandia ya anggad abalaten a sampot na Spitsbergen insan anggad North Cape diad amianen a Norway.[1]

Diad kabaleg to, say Dayat Atlantiko et komadua labat ed Pasipiko. Kaibay asinggeran a dayat to, say sukat to et manga 106,400,000 kilometro kwadrado; no anggapo iratan, say sukat to et 82,400,000 kilometro kwadrado. Say dalin ya onagos ed Atlantiko et apatiran beses a mas baleg nen say Pasipiko odino Indian Ocean. Say kabaleg na Dayat Atlantiko tan saray asingger a dayat et 354,700,000 kilometro kubiko (85,100,000 mi) tan 323,600,000 kilometro kubiko (77,640,000 mi).

Say average a kaaralem na Atlantiko, a pati saray asingger a dayat, et 3,338 metro (10,932 ft); no anggapo iratan et 3,926 metro (12,881 ft). Say sankaaraleman a kaaralem, 8,605 metro (28,232 ft), et diad Puerto Rico Trench. Say kabaleg na Atlantiko et manlalapud 2,848 kilometro (1,770 mi) ed baetan na Brazil tan Liberia anggad manga 4,830 kilometro (3,000 mi) ed baetan na Estados Unidos tan amianen ya Aprika.

Saray Karakteristika na Danum dumaen

Say Dayat Atlantiko a nanengneng manlapud sagur a baybay na Irlanda diad maabig ya agew.

Diad average, say Atlantiko so sankasalin dayat ed saray manunan dayat ed mundo; say salinidad na danum ed paway na dayat et manlalapud 33 anggad 37 a parte ed kada sanlibon masa tan nandumaan unong ed latitude tan panaon. Saray balor na salinidad ed tapew na dalin et naiimpluensyaan na panag-ebolusyon, uran, isusublay na ilog, tan itetelek na yelo ed dayat. Anggaman saray sankaabebaan a balor na asin et walad bandad norte na equator (lapud maples ya uran), diad inkalapagan et saray sankamelagan a balor et walad atagey iran latitude tan diad gilig na baybay a ditan et onagos iray baleg a ilog ed dayat. Say sankatageyan ya salinidad et nagagawa ed manga 25° ed norte tan abalaten na equator, diad subtropikal iran rehiyon ya melag so uran tan atagey so ipapaway.

Surface water temperatures, which vary with latitude, current systems, and season and reflect the latitudinal distribution of solar energy, range from less than −2 °Celsius to 29 °C (28 °F to 84 °F). Maximum temperatures occur north of the equator, and minimum values are found in the polar regions. In the middle latitudes, the area of maximum temperature variations, values may vary by 7 °C to 8 °C (44 °F to 46 °F).

The Atlantic Ocean consists of four major water masses. The North and South Atlantic central waters constitute the surface waters. The sub-Antarctic intermediate water extends to depths of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). The North Atlantic deep water reaches depths of as much as 4,000 metres (13,200 ft). The Antarctic bottom water occupies ocean basins at depths greater than 4,000 metres (13,200 ft).

Within the North Atlantic, ocean currents isolate a large elongated body of water known as the Sargasso Sea, in which the salinity is noticeably higher than average. The Sargasso Sea contains large amounts of seaweed and is also the spawning ground for the European eel.

Because of the Coriolis effect, water in the North Atlantic circulates in a clockwise direction, whereas water circulation in the South Atlantic is counter-clockwise. The south tides in the Atlantic Ocean are semi-diurnal; that is, two high tides occur during each 24 lunar hours. The tides are a general wave that moves from south to north. In latitudes above 40° North some east-west oscillation occurs.

Climate dumaen

Waves in the trade winds in the Atlantic Ocean—areas of converging winds that move along the same track as the prevailing wind—create instabilities in the atmosphere that may lead to the formation of hurricanes.

The climate of the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent land areas is influenced by the temperatures of the surface waters and water currents as well as the winds blowing across the waters. Because of the ocean's great capacity for retaining heat, maritime climates are moderate and free of extreme seasonal variations. Precipitation can be approximated from coastal weather data and air temperature from the water temperatures. The oceans are the major source of the atmospheric moisture that is obtained through evaporation. Climatic zones vary with latitude; the warmest climatic zones stretch across the Atlantic north of the equator. The coldest zones are in the high latitudes, with the coldest regions corresponding to the areas covered by sea ice. Ocean currents contribute to climatic control by transporting warm and cold waters to other regions. Adjacent land areas are affected by the winds that are cooled or warmed when blowing over these currents. The Gulf Stream, for example, warms the atmosphere of the British Isles and northwestern Europe, and the cold water currents contribute to heavy fog off the coast of northeastern Canada (the Grand Banks area) and the northwestern coast of Africa. In general, winds tend to transport moisture and warm or cool air over land areas. Hurricanes develop in the southern part of the North Atlantic Ocean.

History dumaen

The Atlantic Ocean appears to be the second youngest of the world's oceans, after the Southern Ocean. Evidence indicates that it did not exist prior to 180 million years ago, when the continents that formed from the breakup of the ancestral supercontinent, Pangaea, were being rafted apart by the process of seafloor spreading. The Atlantic has been extensively explored since the earliest settlements were established along its shores. The Vikings, Portuguese, and Christopher Columbus were the most famous among its early explorers. After Columbus, European exploration rapidly accelerated, and many new trade routes were established. As a result, the Atlantic became and remains the major artery between Europe and the Americas (known as transatlantic trade). Numerous scientific explorations have been undertaken, including those by the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont Geological Observatory, and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office.

Some important events in relation to the Atlantic:

Economy dumaen

The ocean has also contributed significantly to the development and economy of the countries around it. Besides its major transatlantic transportation and communication routes, the Atlantic offers abundant petroleum deposits in the sedimentary rocks of the continental shelves and the world's richest fishing resources, especially in the waters covering the shelves. The major species of fish caught are cod, haddock, hake, herring, and mackerel. The most productive areas include the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, the shelf area off Nova Scotia, Georges Bank off Cape Cod, the Bahama Banks, the waters around Iceland, the Irish Sea, the Dogger Bank of the North Sea, and the Falkland Banks. Eel, lobster, and whales have also been taken in great quantities. All these factors, taken together, tremendously enhance the Atlantic's great commercial value. Because of the threats to the ocean environment presented by oil spills, marine debris, and the incineration of toxic wastes at sea, various international treaties exist to reduce some forms of pollution.

Current environmental issues dumaen

Endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales. Drift net fishing is killing dolphins, albatrosses and other seabirds (petrels, auks), hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to international disputes. There is municipal sludge pollution off the eastern United States, southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; and industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in the Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea.

On June 7, 2006, Florida's wildlife commission voted to take the manatee off of the state's endangered species list. Some environmentalists worry that this could erode safeguards for the popular sea creature.

Major ports and harbours dumaen


North America dumaen

United States dumaen

Canada dumaen

Other North American locales dumaen


Europe dumaen


South America dumaen

Brazil dumaen

Africa dumaen

Note: This list of ports and harbors is very short. For instance, Panama alone has 30 ports.

Saray reperensiya dumaen

  1. Limits of Oceans and Seas. International Hydrographic Organization Special Publication No. 23, 1953.

Much of this article comes from the public domain site http://oceanographer.navy.mil/atlantic.html (dead link). It is now accessible from the Internet Archive at https://web.archive.org/web/20020221215514/http://oceanographer.navy.mil/atlantic.html.

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